PAPELES DEL PSICÓLOGO Vol. 40-1 Enero - Abril 2019
KOVYAZINA M.S. AND FOMINA K.A. 75 A r t i c l e s psychological example of IAI is the phenomenon called “visual capture”, manifested in the dominance of visual perception in conflict interaction with other modalities (Rock, Jack, 1964). Studies (Miller, 1972; Locher, 1982) showed that if a tactile and visual analyzer gives the subject inconsistent information about the magnitude and shape of perceived objects, then his final judgments will be based upon the visual modality. The IAI phenomenon has a long history of studying within natural sciences and humanities. However, until now there exists no satisfactory theory of this phenomenon, as there is no accord in the explanation of the concept itself. The definition of common points in understanding the essence of IAI requires at least a brief overview of the history of its study and analysis of the content of definitions found in the generally recognized physiological and psychological scientific literature, which is the main goal of this article. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF INTERMODAL INTERACTION IN THE SENSORY SPHERE Experimental study of intermodal interaction began with the research of Russian neurophysiologists, a significant contribution to which brought the work of L.A. Orbeli (1934), K.H. Kekcheev (1940), S.V. Kravkov (1948) and others. The authors tried to understand the physiological mechanism underlying the interaction of analyzers and to determine the place of IAI in the integrative activity of the brain. The idea of the basic mechanism of IAI changed with the course of time, beginning with the recognition that “ ... every receptor system ... is under the influence of the autonomic nervous system. ... if we act on various receptor units with different stimuli ..., then we cause changes in all receptor systems through the sympathetic nervous system ” (Orbeli, 1934, p. 1112). Then there was an opinion about the presence of ephaptic connections (Kravkov 1948), and the result of all the numerous studies was the experimental evidence of the involvement of the cerebral cortex in the organization of inter-system analyzer rearrangements (Feigenberg, 1975). Experimental confirmation of the cortical nature of the interaction mechanisms of the analyzers promoted the emergence of new works in which neurophysiologists studied the features of intersensory connections in various brain diseases. The first clinical studies of IAI were conducted under the supervision of I.M. Feigenberg (1975). The analysis of disorders of intersensory relations in patients of various nosological groups allowed the researchers to develop their own typology of such disorders and to reveal their regular connection with clinical disease patterns. Interaction of analyzers was studied in 485 patients, including 175 patients with schizophrenia, 25 with epilepsy, 24 with reactive psychoses, 181 with traumatic brain lesions, 40 with organic lesions of the diencephalic region, and 40 with vascular lesions of the brain. In terms of the magnitude (quantity) and the direction (sign) of the sensitivity shift, three types of disorders of analyzer connections were identified: weakening, amplification and distortion. The weakening of the interaction of the analyzers is expressed in the absence of a sensitivity shift: the state of one analyzer does not change in accordance with the corresponding stimulation of another analyzer or changes to a lesser extent in comparison with the norm. The amplification of the interaction of analyzers is manifested in the fact that the shift in the functional state that occurs in one analyzer in response to the stimulation of the other corresponds to a shift in healthy people as far as its sign is concerned, yet exceeds its value in comparison with the norm. The distortion of the interaction of analyzers is a type of disturbance in which the sensitivity shift recorded in one analyzer system by stimulation of another is opposite to the shift in sensitivity in the norm. Weakened interaction of the analyzers was noted in patients with schizophrenia with a clinical pattern of a schizophrenic defect, in patients with a reactive state in the form of pseudodementia, with brain concussion, long-term after cerebrospinal trauma, disorders of cerebral circulation, and traumas of the diencephalic region of the brain. Since in the clinical pattern of these diseases there was a decreased activity of the cerebral cortex, the authors made the assumption that the weakening of the analyzer interaction is connected to this indicant. From psychological viewpoint selectivity mechanisms play major role in gnostic activity as they are not connected with band with characteristics of peripheral analyzer but are defined by “central setting” (Polyakov, 1974). It is well-known that due to actualization impairment when remembering schizophrenic patients restructure their perception as they need to analyze more stimuli’s features to identify objects correctly. Such gnostic activity isn’t optimal and very energy-consuming – that may cause the increase of sensitivity thresholds. Therefore, we can propose that increased interaction of analyzer systems could be caused by the increased readiness of “central setting” to percept specific stimuli and all that could result into decrease of remembered images and alternative hypotheses. Amplification of the analyzer interaction was 1 The Charpentier illusion is a phenomenon when two objects that are common in appearance and of equal mass but of different volume are picked up, the smaller of them is perceived in volume as a heavier object, and a larger object as a lighter one (Arana-Larrea, 1955). The past experience of a person while perceiving two objects that are different in volume, but made of identical material, adjusts both hands before weighing to the perception of different weights, since the larger object always has a larger mass. Because of the equalization of the masses of both objects, the probabilistic forecast is not justified. The mismatch of the actual weight to the probabilistic forecast and adjustment of the muscle spindles leads to an error in estimating the mass – i.e. to the illusion.