PAPELES DEL PSICÓLOGO Vol. 40-2 Mayo - Agosto 2019

Resistance Resistance (i.e., self-control), which depends on the degree of conflict experienced, encompasses efforts to prevent oneself from carrying out the desire (Hofmann et al., 2012). Building on the reflective-impulsive model, the reflective system is responsible for resisting immediate rewards and struggling for a more valuable future (Strack & Deutsch, 2004). However, efforts to self-control frequently fail (Vohs & Heatherton, 2000). The current framework emphasizes the situational conditions (self- regulatory resources, alcohol consumption, and cognitive capacity) as important factors in resisting temptations (see Hofmann et al., 2009). 1. Self-regulatory resources : The classic account of self-control has demonstrated that resistance to temptation requires self- regulatory resources, and hence can be regarded as an effortful undertaking of the mind (Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Muraven, & Tice, 1998; Hofmann & Kotabe, 2012). Based on the logic of the RIM, because the schemata in the reflective system rest below activation level, there is a need for an internal source of energy to reach the threshold for activation (Vohs, 2006). In this regard, self-regulatory resources have been introduced as the underlying energy system for the reflective system by which the schemata are pushed above the threshold when it is needed by self-guides and policies (Vohs, 2006). Interestingly, recently Hedgcock et al. (2012) empirically showed that self-regulatory resource depletion reduces the activity of the right middle frontal gyrus (located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). The results of this neural approach appear to be consistent with the core idea of the current framework. In this respect, Hedgcock et al. (2012) argued that “successful self-control can only occur if people first identify the conflict and then modify their behavior” (p. 487). These authors argued that self-regulatory resource depletion does not affect the conflict monitoring, but does affect people’s abilities to implement control. In terms of impulse buying, Vohs and Faber (2007) experimentally showed that self-regulatory resource depletion left doors open for more impulse buying. 2. Alcohol consumption : Alcohol weakens executive functioning and impairs the power of self-control to inhibit inappropriate action tendencies (e.g., the ability to regulate attention) (Hofmann et al., 2012; Hofmann et al., 2009). It is based on the premise that “alcohol narrows the perceptual focus down to only salient and proximal cues in the environment” (Hofmann et al., 2008a, p. 122). 3. Cognitive capacity : The level of processing resources allocated to the task plays a crucial role in consumer decision making (e.g., choice task) (Friese et al., 2008; Shiv, & Fedorikhin, 1999). For instance, one study showed that food choice was driven strongly by impulsive processes when processing resources were taxed (Friese et al., 2008). Moreover, several studies have emphasized the role of cognitive capacity in impulse buying (e.g., Herabadi et al., 2009; Xiao & Nicholson, 2013). In this regard, it has been discussed that environmental stimuli (e.g., displays) or the complex shopping environment can affect impulse buying because they can reduce the cognitive capacity (Baumeister, 2002; Shiv & Fedorikhin, 1999; see also Prestwich, Hurling, & Baker, 2011). Self-control outcome Based on the core idea of the Preventive-Interventive model (Hofmann & Kotabe, 2012), the endpoint of a self-control model is behavior enactment. In the case of non-tempting impulses, if there are no external constraints, enactment appears to be the natural endpoint of that process. On the other hand, in the case of tempting impulses, enactment means self-control failure or weakness of will (i.e., the person has acted in a way opposite to his/her better judgments), whereas non-enactment means fortuitous self-control (Hofmann & Kotabe, 2012). Therefore, the final outcome behavior will be determined by the three prior stages (see Hofmann et al., 2012). In the same way, the CIFE model (see Dholakia, 2000) proposed that the experience of a psychological conflict results in a thought-based evaluation of the consequences of enacting the consumer impulsiveness. If the evaluation is negative, the violation system will be activated. In this case, the consumer might use different strategies to effortfully resist the temptation such as leaving the environment (Dholakia, 2000). Similarly, according to the logic of the RIM, which distinguishes between a reflective and an impulsive system, availability of self-regulatory resources and enough cognitive capacity can determine which of the two systems will gain control over the final behavior (Hofmann et al., 2009). In this respect, recently Moayery, Narvaiza, and Gibaja Martíns (2018) provided the first empirical foundation for the reflective and impulsive aspect of impulse buying behavior. While impulse buying has been considered as a product of the impulsive system (see Prestwich et al., 2011; Vohs, 2006; Vohs & Faber, 2007), Moayery et al. (2018) showed that impulse buying of unhealthy snacks can be differentially influenced by either impulsive system or reflective system as a function of the availability of self-regulatory resources. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS The core idea of self-control in consumer psychology emphasizes the capacity to resist temptations and disciplining oneself to purchase essential items rather than buying on impulse that is likely to be regretted later on (Baumeister, 2002; Baumeister et al., 2008). In the same line, this paper has also emphasized the importance of impulse buying study, like any other spheres of human life, as an outcome of self-control process. In addition, this paper considered different types of self-control failure resulting from conflicting standards, the degree to which people monitor their behavior, and the depletion of self-regulatory resources. This was followed by explaining the current self-control approaches in impulse buying studies. This research also offered a general framework of self- control with a focus on impulse buying. MEYSAM MOAYERY, LOREA NARVAIZA CANTÍN AND JUAN JOSÉ GIBAJA MARTÍNS 153 A r t i c l e s